Map of 1818

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In this year, the Muslim uprising in Oyo and Owu War likely intensified. Without providing a specific date, Robin Law explains how “Afonja’s military operations seem to have been confined to the eastern provinces of the [Oyo] kingdom, but now his Fulani and Hausa allies extended their activities across the River Ogun into the western provinces.” To reflect slave raiding activity west of the Ogun River, a red dot indicates the location of the town of Iseyin through 1821, which was the year of Samuel Crowther’s enslavement. He described how “for some years, war had been carried on in my Eyo [Oyo].” In that year he was transported from his hometown of Osogun to Iseyin, which became “the rendezvous of the enemies.”

Once Gezo succeeded to the throne in Dahomey, it is worth noting that the notorious, Brazilian-born slave trader, Francisco Felix de Souza, led a coup d’ état from Little Popo to help with the Gezo’s ascension. Thereafter, Dahomey fought annual campaigns, where at first the conquered “Gnito,” which is likely the town of Grito to the west of Lake Ahémé to the north of Little Popo.

In this year, there were twelve documented slave ships that went to Brazil, eleven of which left from unidentified ports, while one departed from Little Popo. Total documented departures were 2,868 individuals, while estimates were slightly more at 2,955 people.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1818

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
41837 Regente (1818) Unspecified Brazil 183
41841 Constância (1818) Unspecified Brazil 183
46723 Juliana (1818) Unspecified Brazil 183
46724 Juliana (1818) Unspecified Brazil 183
46820 Carolina (1818) Unspecified Brazil 183
46854 Constante (1818) Unspecified Brazil 273
48668 Desforço (1818) Unspecified Brazil 239
48669 Destino (1818) Unspecified Brazil 390
48672 Nova Sorte (1818) Unspecified Brazil 239
48810 Aurora (1818) Unspecified Brazil 390
48813 Carolina (1818) Unspecified Brazil 183
48815 São João do Rio (1818) Little Popo Brazil 239

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (