Map of 1824

<< Map of 1823                                                                            Map of 1825 >>

With Oyo under siege on all fronts, two new towns were established, namely Akesan and Ago Oja (the eventual site of “New Oyo”). Also, the ruler of Ede “moved his town southwards across the River Osun as a precaution against Fulani raids and set about attacking and reducing neighbouring towns in the Ibolo province.” Law explains that “after the removal of Afonja, many of the eastern towns, such as Ikoyi, Ogbomoso, Gbogun, and Ede, were to rally to the Alafin [of Oyo].”

As Edward Irving described without much specification in the 1850s, “divisions of the [Ijebu] army went out daily, kidnapping and destroying the smaller Egba towns, the Ijebu slave-traders always offering a ready market for their captives.” In the 1890s, Samuel Johnson explained how the coalition, which included many Oyo refugees, made several expeditions “from their base at Ipara, whereby Iporo, Oba, Itoko, Itesi, Imo, Ikereku, Itoku, etc., were taken.” As the offensive continued, “Itoko shared its fate and [then Ijebu and their allies] occupied Oba, Itoku, and Ijeun.” In apparent attempts to recover, Egba refugees from “Igbore, Imo and Igbein [Egba refugees] allied to march against [Ijebu forces at] Ipara.” Unfortunately, the available primary sources do not convey a chronological sequence of events; thus, it becomes necessary to confront this uncertainty and make decisions to reflect the systematic destruction of Egba towns before 1830.

Elsewhere, Dahomey fought a campaign against “Sessenigo,” which is identified by novelist Paul Hazoumé as being in “Mahi country.” The siege of Paouignan occurred at the same time which suggests that Sessenigo was likely nearby, and on the map, I have estimated its probable location.

At the coast, nine documented slave ships departed, three of which went to Cuba, three to Sierra Leone, two to Brazil and one to an unspecified place. These vessels left from Ouidah, Badagry and Lagos with documented departures being 3,411 people, although more than 6,500 are estimated to have left, which was a substantial increase from the previous year.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1824

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
487 Caridade (1824) Ouidah Brazil 223
2913 Primeira Estrela (1824) Ouidah Brazil 119
2949 Unspecified (1824) Lagos Brazil 500
364 Serafina (1824) Ouidah Cuba 183
2338 Henrietta Aimée (1824) Lagos Cuba 352
2357 Maria da Glória (1824) Lagos Cuba 437
2942 Bom Caminho (1824) Badagry Sierra Leone 334
2945 Dois Amigos Brasileiros (1824) Badagry Sierra Leone 260
2946 Aviso (1824) Badagry Sierra Leone 467
2947 Bela Eliza (1824) Lagos Sierra Leone 381

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (