Map of 1830

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The constant slave raiding on all fronts weakened Oyo’s capacity to respond to Ilorin. Despite increased supplies of guns and ammunition, Oyo and Ilorin reached a “formal accommodation,” whereby the Alafin Majotu of Oyo acknowledged Ilorin’s independence and permitted “trade on the condition that no more Fulani were admitted to the town.” Troops from Gwandu captured the trading town of Gabjigbo, close to the Niger River, which weakened Oyo further. A drought added to the stress of conflict at this time.

The rapid growth of both Ibadan and Abeokuta reflected a period of intense urbanization. Kola Folayan has argued that “Abeokuta compressed the Egba who had formerly occupied 300 towns and villages to about one-third of their former territory …. Egba’s need for more land, caused by their being crammed into a small space, was to be satisfied in Egbado, a process which necessitated Egba invasions into, and gradual domination of, parts of Egabdo.” The primary sources do not contain the names of “300 Egba towns and villages;” thus these missing data cannot be plotted on the maps. As Abeokuta grew in size, however, “Ijebu armies attacked the farms around Abeokuta.”

In Mahi territory, Dahomey’s campaign against “Dossa-Agnessignon” likely relates to a place near the Yoruba-speaking enclave of Idasa and perhaps the unidentifiable Mahi town of “Sessegnigo;” and hence the location that I have assigned to this place is debatable.

At the coast, only seven slave ships departed, including five taken to Sierra Leone, one that went to Brazil and another to Cuba. Total documented and estimated departures decreased to just over 2,000 people, as it appears that British suppression was having a significant impact.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1830

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
1226 Destemida (1830) Ouidah Brazil 61
1203 Almirante (1830) Ouidah Cuba 640
2423 Veloz Pasajera (1830) Jakin Sierra Leone 556
3029 Nossa Senhora da Guia (1830) Lagos Sierra Leone 310
3030 Primeira Rosália (1830) Lagos Sierra Leone 282
3031 Umbelina (1830) Lagos Sierra Leone 377
3032 Nova Resolucão (1830) Keta Sierra Leone 43

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (